Egner, A., S. W. Hell: "Equivalence of the Huygens-Fresnel and Debye approach for the calculation of high aperture point-spread-functions in the presence of refractive index mismatch". J. Microsc.  193, 244-249
Klar, T. A., S. W. Hell: "Subdiffraction resolution in far-field fluorescence microscopy". Opt. Lett.  24, 954-956
Koester, H. J., D. Baur, R. Uhl, S. W. Hell: "Ca 2+ Fluorescence Imaging with Pico- and Femtosecond Two-Photon Excitation: Signal and Photodamage". Biophys. J.  77, 2226-2236
Schönle, A., P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell: "Nonlinear fluorescence through intermolecular energy transfer and resolution increase in fluorescence microscopy". Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)  8, 115-133
Schönle, A., S. W. Hell: "Far-field fluorescence microscopy with repetetive excitation". Eur. Phys. J. D  6, 283-290


Bewersdorf, J., R. Pick, S. W. Hell: "Multifocal Multiphoton Microscopy". Opt. Lett.  23, 655-657
Bewersdorf, J., S. W. Hell: "Picosecond pulsed two-photon imaging with repetition rates of 200 and 400 MHz". J. Microsc.  191, 28-38
Booth, M., S. W. Hell: "Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647 nm ArKr laser line". J. Microsc.  190, 298-304
Egner, A., M. Schrader, S. W. Hell: "Refractive index mismatch induced intensity and phase variations in fluorescence confocal, multiphoton and 4Pi-microscopy". Opt. Commun.  153, 211-217
Hell, S. W., M. Booth, S. Wilms, C. M. Schnetter, A. K. Kirsch, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, T. Jovin: "Two-photon near and far-field fluorescence microscopy with continuous-wave excitation". Opt. Lett.  23, 1238-1240
Hell, S. W., M. Nagorni: "4Pi-confocal microscopy with alternate interference". Opt. Lett.  23, 1567-1569
Nagorni, M., S. W. Hell: "4Pi-confocal microscopy provides three-dimensional images of the microtubule network with 100- to 150-nm resolution". J. Struct. Biol.  123, 236-247
Schönle, A., S. W. Hell: "Heating by absorption in the focus of an objective lens". Opt. Lett.  23, 325-327
Straub, M., S. W. Hell: "Multifocal multiphoton microscopy: A fast and efficient tool for 3-D fluorescence imaging". Bioimaging  6, 177-185
Straub, M., S. W. Hell: "Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope". Appl. Phys. Lett  73, 1769-1771
Schrader, M., K. Bahlmann, G. Giese, S. W. Hell: "4Pi-Confocal Imaging in Fixed Biological Specimens". Biophys. J.  75, 1659-1668
Schrader, M., S. W. Hell, H. T. M. van der Voort: "Three-dimensional super-resolution with a 4Pi-confocal microscope using image restoration". J. Appl. Phys.  84, 4033-4042


Hell, S. W., M. Schrader, H. T. M. van der Voort: "Far-field fluorescence microscopy with three-dimensional resolution in the 100-nm range". J. Microsc.  187, 1-7
Gryczynski, I., S. W. Hell, J. R. Lakowicz: "Light quenching of pyridine2 fluorescence with time-delayed pulses". Biophys. Chem.  66, 13-24
Lakowicz, J. R., I. Grysczynski, H. Malak, M. Schrader, P. Engelhardt, H. Kano, S. W. Hell: "Time-Resolved Fluorescene Spectroscopy and Imaging of DNA Labeled with DAPI and Hoechst 33342 Using Three-Photon Excitation". Biophys. J.  72, 567-578
Schrader, M., K. Bahlmann, S. W. Hell: "Three-Photon excitation microscopy: theory, experiment and applications". Optik - International Journal for light   104, 116-124
Soini, J. T., M. Schrader, P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell: "Image formation and data acquisition in a stage scanning 4Pi confocal fluorescence microscope". Appl. Optics  36, 8929-8934


Hell, S. W., K. Bahlmann, M. Schrader, A. Soini, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, J. R. Lakowicz: "Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy". J. Biomed. Opt.  1, 71-74
Gryczynski, I., H. Malak, S. W. Hell, J. R. Lakowicz: "Three-photon excitation of 2,5-Bis(4-biphenyl)oxazole: Steady state and time resolved intensities and anisotropies". J. Biomed. Opt.  1, 473-480
Hänninen, P. E., L. Lehtelä, S. W. Hell: "Two- and multiphoton excitation of conjugate-dyes using a continuous wave laser". Opt. Commun.  130, 29-33
Kano, H., H. T. M. van der Voort, M. Schrader, G. M. P. van Kempen, S. W. Hell: "Avalanche photodiode detection with object scanning and image restoration provides 2-4 fold resolution increase in two-photon fluorescence microscopy". Bioimaging  4, 187-197
Schrader, M., S. W. Hell: "4Pi-confocal images with axial superresolution". J. Microsc.  183, 110-115
Schrader, M., S. W. Hell: "Waves in the focus of a light microscope". J. Microsc.  184, 143-148
Schrader, M., S. W. Hell, H. T. M. Van der Voort: "Potential of confocal microscopes to resolve in the 50-100 nm range". Appl. Phys. Lett.  69, 3644-3646


Hell, S. W., J. Soukka, P. E. Hänninen: "Two- and multiphoton detection as an imaging mode and means of increasing the resolution in far-field light microscopy: A study based on photon-optics". Bioimaging  3, 64-69
Hell, S. W., M. Kroug: "Ground-state depletion fluorescence microscopy, a concept for breaking the diffraction resolution limit". Appl. Phys. B  60, 495-497
Hell, S. W., A. Utz, P. E. Hänninen, E. Soini: "Pulsed laser fluorophore deposition: a method for measuring the axial resolution in two-photon fluorescence microscopy". J. Opt. Soc. Am. A  12, 2072-2076
Hell, S. W., M. Schrader, K. Bahlmann, F. Meinecke, J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski: "Stimulated Emission on a Microscopic Scale: Light Quenching of Pyridinium 2 using a Ti:Sapphire laser". J. Microsc.  180, RP1-RP2
Hell, S. W., M. Schrader, P. E. Hänninen, E. Soini: "Resolving fluorescence beads at 100-200 axial distance with a two-photon 4Pi-microscope operating in the near infrared". Opt. Commun.  120, 129-133
Hell, S. W., P. E. Hanninen, A. Kuusisto, M. Schrader, E. Soini: "Annular aperture two-photon excitation microscopy". Opt. Commun.  117, 20-24
Hänninen, P. E., S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, C. Cremer: "2-photon excitation 4pi confocal microscope - enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research". Appl. Phys. Lett.  66, 1698-1700
Hänninen, P. E., M. Schrader, E. Soini, S. W. Hell: "Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy using a semiconductor laser". Bioimaging  3, 70-75
Jacobsen, H., S. W. Hell: "Effect of the specimen refractive index on the imaging of a confocal fluorescence microscope employing high aperture oil immersion lenses". Bioimaging  3, 39-47
Schrader, M., F. Meinecke, K. Bahlmann, M. Kroug, C. Cremer, E. Soini, S. W. Hell: "Monitoring the excited state of a fluorophore in a microscope by stimulated emission". Bioimaging  3, 147-153


Hell, S. W.: "Improvement of lateral resolution in far-field light microscopy using two-photon excitation with offset beams". Opt. Commun.  106, 19-24
Hell, S. W., J. Wichmann: "Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy". Opt. Lett.  19, 780-782
Hell, S. W., S. Lindek, E. H. K. Stelzer: "Enhancing the axial resolution in far-field light microscopy: two-photon excitation 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscopy". J. Mod Opt.  41, 675-681
Hell, S. W., S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer: "Confocal microscopy with an increased detection aperture: type-B 4Pi confocal microscopy". Opt. Lett.  19, 222-224
Hell, S. W., P. E. Hänninen, A. Kuusisto, E. Soini, T. Wilson, J. B. Tan : "Pulsed and cw confocal light microscopy: a comparison of resolution and contrast". Opt. Commun.  113, 144-152
Hell, S. W., S. Lindek, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer: "Measurement of the 4Pi-confocal point spread function proves 75 nm axial resolution". Appl. Phys. Lett.  64, 1335-1338
Hänninen, P. E., S. W. Hell: "Femtosecond pulse broadening in the focal region of a two-photon fluorescence microscope". Bioimaging  2, 117-122
Hänninen, P. E., E. Soini, S. W. Hell: "Continuous wave excitation two-photon flourescence microscopy". J. Microsc.  176, 222-225
Jacobsen, H., P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell: "Refractive-index-induced aberrations in two-photon confocal fluorescence microscopy". J. Microsc.  176, 226-230
Stelzer, E. H. K., S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Pick, C. Storz, R. Stricker, G. Ritter, N. Salmon: "Non linear absorption extends confocal fluorescence microscopy into the ultra-violet regime and confines the illumination volume". Opt. Commun.  104, 223-228


Hell, S. W., G. Reiner, C. Cremer, E. H. K. Stelzer: "Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index". J. Microsc.  169, 391-405


Hell, S. W., E. H. K. Stelzer: "Fundamental improvement of resolution with a 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope using two-photon excitation". Opt. Commun.  93, 277-282
Hell, S. W., E. H. K. Stelzer: "Properties of a 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope". J. Opt. Soc. Am. A  9, 2159-2166


Hell, S. W., S. Witting, M. von Schickfus, R. W. Wijnaendts-van-Resandt, S. Hunkliger, S. Smolka, M. Neiger: "A confocal beam scanning white light microscope". J. Microsc.  163, 179-187


Rensch, C., S. W. Hell, M. von Schickfus, S. Hunklinger: "Laser scanner for direct writing lithography". Appl. Optics  28, 3754-3758

Book Chapters

Hell, S. W. (1997):  "Increasing the Resolution of Far-Field Fluorescence Microscopy by Point-Spread-Function Engineering". In: Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy 5: Nonlinear and Two-Photon-Induced Fluorescence. J. Lakowicz. New York, Plenum Press, 361-426.

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